Leadership and Management notes



This paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable him/her to apply and demonstrate leadership and management skills to grow an enterprise under various circumstances and environments including under uncertainties.


A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of leadership techniques and management principles
  • Apply knowledge of leadership and management theories in organizations
  • Effectively undertake management functions
  • Make rational management decisions in an organisational context
  • Embrace and manage strategic change.


  1. Introduction to management

1.1     Nature of management

1.2Importance of management

1.3     Levels of management

1.4Multi-disciplinary nature of management

1.5Roles of management as advocated Henry Mintzberg

1.6 The changing roles of management and managers

1.7Qualities of an effective manager

1.8Management and administration


  1. Evolution and development of management thought

2.1 Classical approaches to management

2.1.1      Taylor’s view point

2.1.2Fayol’s administrative theory

2.1.3Max Weber’s bureaucratic theory


2.2 Behavioural management approach

2.2.1Elton Mayo-Human relation theory

2.2.2Abraham Maslow’s theory

2.2.3McGregor’s X and Y theories

2.2.4Mary Parker Follett’s Management theory

2.3 Modern management theories

2.3.1         Quantitative thinking

2.3.2         Systems thinking

2.3.3         Contingency thinking


  1. Leading as a function of management

3.1  Differences between management and leadership

3.2  Attributes and skills of a good leader

3.3Delegation, responsibility and accountability

3.4Power, authority and accountability

4.Other Functions of management


4.1 Planning function:

4.1.1 Introduction to planning

4.1.2Importance of planning

4.1.3Planning process

4.1.4Types of plans

4.1.5Approaches to planning

4.2 Organising function

4.2.1   Meaning and importance of organising

4.2.2   Factors affecting the organising function

4.2.3Process of organising

4.2.4Principles of organising

4.2.5 Organisational structures


4.3 Staffing function

4.3.1Meaning and importance of staffing

4.3.2Staffing process

4.3.3  Factors that affect the staffing function

4.3.4  Components of the staffing function


4.4 Controlling function

4.4.1 Meaning and importance of control

4.4.2Steps in the control process

4.4.3Types of control

4.4.4  Controlling for organisational and employee performance

4.4.5  Tools for measuring performance

4.4.6  Essentials of an effective control system


  1. 5. Environmental Analysis

5.1  Micro-environment


5.3Internal environment

5.4  External environment

5.5  Tools of environmental analysis

  1. 6. Leadership approaches and strategy

6.1Leadership traits

6.2  Leadership styles

6.3  Leadership skills

6.4 Formulation of an organisation’s strategic direction

6.5Differences between transactional leadership and transformational leadership

6.6Conflict resolution mechanisms

6.7 Ethics in leadership


  1. Decision making

7.1 Importance of decision making

7.2  Decision making models/approaches

7.3 Types of decisions

7.4 Decision making process

7.5 Problem solving skills

7.6 Decision making under different conditions

7.7Challenges in decision making

7.8Effective decision making


8.Enterprise management

8.1 Meaning and concept of entrepreneurship


8.3Entrepreneurial development

8.4Enhancing creativity and innovation in organisations

8.5Methods of generating ideas

8.6Introduction to business plan

8.7Protection of intellectual properties


  1. Project management

9.1 Project management concepts

9.2Characteristics of a project

9.3  Importance of projects

9.4Features of projects and baseline surveys

9.5  Illustration of theProject life cycle

9.6  Project planning and organising

9.7Project resources and costing

9.8Project completion and evaluation


10.Marketing management

10.1Meaning and importance of marketing

10.2Marketing management orientation/philosophies

10.3 Marketing mix

10.4 Development of marketing information

10.5Marketing strategies

10.6Marketing research and intelligence

10.7International marketing and e-commerce

11.Leadership and Strategic Change

11.1  Meaning of change

11.2  Theories of change

11.3  Types of organisational change

11.4  Managing resistance to change

11.5  Diagnosing the change context

11.6  Levers for strategic change

11.7  Methods of introducing strategic change

11.8  Problems of formal change programmes

11.9  Leading Change


12.Case Studies in Leadership and Management

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