Leadership and Management December 2022 Past Paper



MONDAY: 5 December 2022. Morning Paper. Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Do NOT write anything on this paper.



Fatuma Apio has such a strong leadership presence that it would be difficult to talk about Bora Association of Manufacturers (BAM) without mentioning her name. For close to a decade now, press conferences, newspaper commentaries, trade and investment talks associated with BAM always had a permanent fixture that was its Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Fatuma Apio.

As she exits BAM due to end of her term of service, her charisma as a superstar CEO may become a difficult feat for the incoming CEO, Musa Mapito, to emulate. Fatuma Apio is well known in the manufacturing industry due to her signature look. She dresses in Ankara coats, which are quite uncommon in this part of the world. Fatuma rose through the ranks having joined BAM as the head of policy, research and advocacy in the year 2005. She took over the leadership mantle of BAM in the year 2012 after the Board of BAM pushed out its then CEO, Bakari Mapelu due to lackluster performance. BAM had always been a high performing organisation and the Board felt that Bakari Mapelu lacked the right skill set, decision style and values to steer BAM forward. In Fatuma Apio, the Board saw a leader with the “right package” of skills, values and abilities and a person who could build a strong leadership team in the organisation. To them, Fatuma Apio was an idealist who had an unquenchable thirst for learning and growing. They knew that she would influence the other leaders and employees of BAM to follow suit. This would then result in a healthy organisational culture necessary for the success of BAM. Fatuma Apio believed in and implemented Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Movement Theory at BAM. Without a doubt, Fatuma was a transformational leader.

Fatuma Apio’s farewell party was quite emotional since members of staff felt like one big united family, and her separation with BAM was unimaginable. Fatuma had a knack for recruiting the right staff and developing them to their highest potential. She had what it took when it came to staffing. No wonder BAM became so successful during her tenure to the envy of many organisations. She ensured that BAM had a progressive staffing policy. The policy encouraged employees to have a work life balance. In her final speech, she narrated her experience as a newly appointed CEO where most of her time was spent at the workplace. “I used to work late into the night and during weekends at the expense of my young family. This can be challenging to many of us and requires a lot of discipline and a solid support system. Luckily, I had great support from my husband. I highly discourage such a work ethic. You should always create time for your families. I know of situations where, such a work ethic has led to conflicts at the family level and the repercussions experienced at the workplace,” she told the employees.

As one of the few women CEOs, and just in her 40s, her advice to young women aspiring to be top executives is simply to acquire knowledge and competence, saying it is the best investment one can make. “Knowledge will aid you in making great strides in all the areas you are passionate about. Most importantly, self-discipline and responsibility shall steer you to the right path,” she says. What she likes most about the industry now is that more women are taking up leadership positions than ever before. “Unfortunately, the game is already rigged, particularly on what is expected of women in leadership and their ability to hold such positions,” she added.

Fatuma encouraged women employees of BAM not to be bound defined spaces. They should shine in their talent and skills to make a difference. “This concept continues to be demonstrated everyday as more women take up C-suite roles, more so in traditionally, male-dominated sectors, such as manufacturing,” she said. Fatuma added that, “BAM started the Women in Manufacturing Programme to provide a space for women to venture into the manufacturing space. We aspire to see more women participate in the sector in senior leadership roles, as owners and founders, and for young girls to see themselves as future industrialists”.

According to her, there were times when the issues she wanted to change took too long to materialise, but she remained steadfast. This taught her to be patient and resilient. “I have learnt that challenges fuel you to become more innovative,” she concluded.

(a) Fatuma Apio believed in and implemented Elton Mayo’s, Human Relations Movement theory at BAM.
With reference to the above statement, describe FIVE actions that Fatuma Apio may have taken, to implement the theory in her organisation. (10 marks)

(b) Bernard M. Bass developed the transformational leadership theory in 1985 as a way to describe the psychological mechanisms that are used leaders.
With reference to the above statement:

(i) Explain SIX personal traits that Fatuma Apio possesses that enable her to be regarded as a successful transformational leader. (6 marks)
(ii) Examine FOUR elements that make up a transformational leader, which came to be known as the 4 Is. (8 marks)
(c) Enumerate SIX principles that BAM might have taken into consideration while developing a staffing policy.
(6 marks)
(d) Fatuma Apio encouraged BAM employees to always create time for their families to avoid conflicts. Conflicts in organisations also occur between line and staff management.

With reference to the above statements, assess FIVE possible sources of conflict between line and staff management of BAM. (10 marks)
(Total: 40 marks)

(a) Identify FIVE reasons why a business organisation should write a business plan. (5 marks)

(b) Organisational success is dependent on the interaction and interdependence of internal and external system components.

With reference to the above statement, describe FIVE components of organisational system. (10 marks)
(Total: 15 marks)

(a) Explain FIVE causes of project failure. (5 marks)
(b) As a function of management, evaluate FIVE principles of organising. (10 marks)
(Total: 15 marks)

(a) Jack Jim, a champion and a well renowned organisational change agent joined PQX company Limited as the Chief Executive Officer when Covid 19 struck the world in 2020.
In his first week after appointment, he called a meeting for all the top level managers in the company to brain storm on changes expected in PQX Company Limited in order for the company to remain afloat.

(i) Explain the term “change agent’’. (2 marks)
(ii) Analyse THREE issues that the meeting might have addressed. (3 marks)

(b) Evaluate FIVE strategies leaders might apply in organisations to increase their leadership influence. (10 marks)
(Total: 15 marks)

(a) Describe the ADKAR change management model. (5 marks)

(b) Explain FOUR challenges associated with group decision making. (4 marks)

(c) Summarise SIX benefits that may accrue to an organisation from registering a trademark of their invention. (6 marks)
(Total: 15 marks)

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